Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)

A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/stocks/bonds/debentures/securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.

In a simple sentence, Non-bank financial companies (NBFCs) are financial institutions that provide certain banking services without having the banking licenses.

As per the latest directives, the RBI has raised the limit for NBFCs to maintain the net owned fund (NOF) requirement to four times by 2017 to Rs.2 crore.
At present, the NOF requirement is at Rs.25 lakh. In a phased manner, the NBFCs would be required to raise it to Rs.1 crore by March, 2016, and to further double it to Rs.2 crore by 2017.

The Salient Features of NBFCs Regulations:-
–  The NBFCs are allowed to accept/renew public deposits for a minimum period of 12 months and
   maximum period of 60 months. They cannot accept deposits repayable on demand.
– NBFCs cannot offer interest rates higher than the ceiling rate prescribed by RBI from time to time. The present ceiling is 12.5 per cent per annum. The interest          may be paid or compounded at rests not shorter than monthly rests.
–  NBFCs cannot offer gifts/incentives or any other additional benefit to the depositors.
–  NBFCs (except certain AFCs) should have minimum investment grade credit rating.
–  The deposits with NBFCs are not insured.
–  The repayment of deposits by NBFCs is not guaranteed by RBI. Certain mandatory disclosures are to be made about the company in the Application Form issued       by the company soliciting deposits.
–  For deposit and non-deposit taking NBFCs, Capital to Risk (Weighted) Assets Ratio or CRAR, which includes Tier I capital of 7.5 per cent, is 15 per cent at present.

Categories of NBFCs registered with RBI

Asset Finance Company(AFC) : An AFC is a company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the financing of physical assets supporting productive/economic activity, such as automobiles, tractors, lathe machines, generator sets, earth moving and material handling equipments, moving on own power and general purpose industrial machines. Principal business for this purpose is defined as aggregate of financing real/physical assets supporting economic activity and income arising therefrom is not less than 60% of its total assets and total income respectively.

Investment Company (IC) : IC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the acquisition of securities,

Loan Company (LC): LC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the providing of finance whether by making loans or advances or otherwise for any activity other than its own but does not include an Asset Finance Company.

Infrastructure Finance Company (IFC): IFC is a non-banking finance company a) which deploys at least 75 per cent of its total assets in infrastructure loans, b) has a minimum Net Owned Funds of Rs. 300 crore, c) ha

Systemically Important Core Investment Company (CIC-ND-SI): CIC-ND-SI is an NBFC carrying on the business of acquisition of shares and securities which satisfies the following conditions:-
(a) it holds not less than 90% of its Total Assets in the form of investment in equity shares, preference shares, debt or loans in group companies;
(b) its investments in the equity shares (including instruments compulsorily convertible into equity shares within a period not exceeding 10 years from the date of         issue) in group companies constitutes not less than 60% of its Total Assets;
(c) it does not trade in its investments in shares, debt or loans in group companies except through block sale for the purpose of dilution or disinvestment;
(d) it does not carry on any other financial activity referred to in Section 45I(c) and 45I(f) of the RBI act, 1934 except investment in bank deposits, money market           instruments, government securities, loans to and investments in debt issuances of group companies or guarantees issued on behalf of group companies.
(e) Its asset size is Rs 100 crore or above and
(f) It accepts public funds
Infrastructure Debt Fund: Non- Banking Financial Company (IDF-NBFC) : IDF-NBFC is a company registered as NBFC to facilitate the flow of long term debt into infrastructure projects. IDF-NBFC raise resources through issue of Rupee or Dollar denominated bonds of minimum 5 year maturity. Only Infrastructure Finance Companies (IFC) can sponsor IDF-NBFCs.

Non-Banking Financial Company – Micro Finance Institution (NBFC-MFI): NBFC-MFI is a non-deposit taking NBFC having not less than 85%of its assets in the nature of qualifying assets which satisfy the following criteria:
a. loan disbursed by an NBFC-MFI to a borrower with a rural household annual income not exceeding Rs. 60,000 or urban and semi-urban household income not          exceeding Rs. 1,20,000;
b. loan amount does not exceed Rs. 35,000 in the first cycle and Rs. 50,000 in subsequent cycles;
c. total indebtedness of the borrower does not exceed Rs. 50,000;
d. tenure of the loan not to be less than 24 months for loan amount in excess of Rs. 15,000 with prepayment without penalty;
e. loan to be extended without collateral;
f. aggregate amount of loans, given for income generation, is not less than 75 per cent of the total loans given by the MFIs;
g. loan is repayable on weekly, fortnightly or monthly instalments at the choice of the borrower

Non-Banking Financial Company Factors (NBFC-Factors): NBFC-Factor is a non-deposit taking NBFC engaged in the principal business of factoring. The financial assets in the factoring business should constitute at least 75 percent of its total assets and its income derived from factoring business should not be less than 75 percent of its gross income.

Difference between banks & NBFCs:
a. NBFC cannot accept demand deposits;
b. NBFCs do not form part of the payment and settlement system and cannot issue cheques drawn on itself;
c. Deposit insurance facility of Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation is not available to depositors of NBFCs, unlike in case of banks.

Types of NBFC which are not regulated by RBI:
Category of Companies               Regulator
Chit Funds                                     Respective State Governments
Insurance companies      —————–IRDA
Housing Finance Companies  ——— NHB
Venture Capital Fund           ————-SEBI
Merchant Banking companies    ——-SEBI
Stock broking companies       ———–SEBI
Nidhi Companies             —————-Ministry of corporate affairs, Government of India

Nidhi Company

to any mutual benefit society notified by the Central / Union Government as a Nidhi Company. They are created mainly for cultivating the habit of thrift and savings amongst its members. The companies doing Nidhi business, viz. borrowing from members and lending to members only, are known under different names such as Nidhi, Permanent Fund, Benefit Funds, Mutual Benefit Funds and Mutual Benefit Company.
Nidhis are more popular in South India and are highly localized single office institutions. They are mutual benefit societies, because their dealings are restricted only to the members; and membership is limited to individuals. The principal source of funds is the contribution from the members. The loans are given to the members at relatively reasonable rates for purposes such as house construction or repairs and are generally secured. The deposits mobilized by Nidhis are not much when compared to the organized banking sector.